Conf. This is done by distillation and degassing. Dielectric behavior of a commercially available sunflower oil based natural ester is compared with Shell Diala mineral oil and presented in this paper. by 18.104.22.168 on 02/20/18. So far, however, there is little experience for use of these liquids in large power transformers. In brief, this paper provides transformer designers and users about the advantages and challenges of "Green Insulating Liquid". These renewable resources have good dielectric properties and are compatible for use in power transformers. trailer << /Size 139 /Info 92 0 R /Root 94 0 R /Prev 138163 /ID[<752af81676a37cca0b8118c70a0962cc><752af81676a37cca0b8118c70a0962cc>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 94 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 90 0 R >> endobj 137 0 obj << /S 562 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 138 0 R >> stream IP-2419 895J, AP Armaflex®). The mineral oils were the only liquids to satisfy all of the NEMA guidelines. By considering environmental issues, many researchers are motivated on the way to develop new insulating medium. 0000007510 00000 n Insulating liquid plays an important role for the life span of the transformer. coconut oil samples consisting of virgin, copra and RBD (refined, bleached and deodorized) were initially tested by frequency dielectric spectroscopy (FDS) measurements to see how the conductivity was improved by dehydration and neutralization. This paper gives an extensi, been discussed. However, the concentration, of water in aged vegetable oil is more when compared to aged, mineral oil. But in, early 1970, it was determined that PCB were no longer en-, vironmentally acceptable and hence new uses and production, of PCBs have been banned. In parallel, field-aged coconut oil samples collected from a sealed distribution transformer with 11 years of service were also tested by FDS measurements. 0000013440 00000 n The performances of oil samples were evaluated using the test results of breakdown voltage, acidity, interfacial tension and FDS measurements under different aging periods such as 2, 5 and 7 weeks. It was found that the FDS results were in good agreement with chemical test results and with the estimated conductivity values. The electrical breakdown voltage obtained for sunflower oil, til oil and pithraj oil are found to be 18.53 kV, 16.17 kV and 15.03 kV, respectively, for a 2.5-mm gap between electrodes at 20°C. Conf. Without detailing the cases and reasons, it is accepted that the rate of production of dissolved gases in esters during thermal and electrical faults is less in comparison with petroleum-based mineral oil. However, there is comparatively less experience on usage of ester-based insulating liquids in large power transformers. IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation. It also covers key modifications in design, manufacturing and operation to help assure excellent functionality and long life. The results indicated that coconut oil, studied about the partial discharge char-, acteristics of palm fatty acid ester (PFAE) and draws the, conclusion that PFAE has good potential to be used as, cooling and insulating liquid in power transformer. f�O��r The TME oil shows higher AC breakdown voltage (Vb, 72.6 kV/2.5 mm) than that of FR3 (65 kV/2.5 mm). The TS of the KP in PFAE after 365-day aging at 105°C decreases to about 78% of initial strength, while the TS for the paper in MO drops to 15%. In this work, vegetable oils such as Punna oil, Rice bran oil, Palm olein oil, Gingelly oil, Sunflower oil, Neem oil, Caster oil, Mustard oil, Ground nut oil and Mughwa oil are studied for development of new insulating medium. 28. . These acids and moisture do not cause obvious degradation of breakdown voltage and dielectric loss factor, which may be attributed to the high moisture solubility in it. ation in natural ester fluid, mineral oil and silicone, in, pressboard in different insulating liquids, in, I. Fofana, 50 years in the development of insulating, Stssl, Partial discharge behavior of environmentally friendly and, hardly inflammable ester liquids compared to mineral oil for, Jhala, A review on critical evaluation of natural ester vis-a-vis. depends on liquid dielectrics as an insulating material. electrical conduction, minimum metal corrosion, Potassium hydroxide required in gram to neutralize, high chemical deterioration of insulating paper, Water content test apparatus, Karl Fisher titration, formation, minimum electrical conduction, and, Oxidation stability test vessel, oxidation stability, Higher the BDV value: better the ability to, Spherical and semi hemispherical brass electrodes, Lower dissipation factor: indicates better insulating, Measurement of phase difference between applied, Continuous and discrete optical sensor-based, Optical sensor-based instrumentation system, It has been found from the literature that most of the physical, properties such as moisture content, flash point, dielectric, recommended level. respectively. Open image in new window. Based on the experimental results, both oils show higher breakdown voltage compared to the mineral oil. 0000002225 00000 n This paper presents variations of capacitance and dielectric losses of coconut oil and mineral oil impregnated pressboard samples during oven heating. The combined oil-paper, Transformer mineral oil has been replaced by alternative oils such as synthetic oil and natural esters due to their biodegradability and environmentally friendly nature. Sufficient insulation between different active parts of the transformer is necessary for its safe operation. For these purposes, a few vegetable oils available in Bangladesh are investigated for their electrical and physical properties. Symp. Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis (CMD), Bandara, G. A. Jayantha and C. S. Kalpage, Performance of co-. Samarajeewa, M. A. R. M. Fernando, J. R. S. S. Kumara and C. S. Kalpage, Dielectric properties of coconut oil impregnated press-. Steady state evaporative boil-off tests were performed with vacuum annulus pressures ranging from 0.01 Pa (10-5. torr) to 101 kPa (760 torr) and liquid levels ranging from 100% to 0%. 0000004324 00000 n (ICSyS), 2013 IEEE 8th Int. The FDS results were fitted by inverse power dependence and Cole-Cole models to estimate the conductivity and response functions. The observed response patterns show that real capacitance and AC conductivity is dispersed in low frequency region of FDS. Coconut oil has been reported as a potential alternative for mineral oil when used as the power transformer liquid insulation. Part 2 emphasizes on additional key properties and material compatibility related to electrical design. Some gases such as Nitrogen and Hydrogen do not appear to upset the electrical properties to a great extent, but oxygen and carbon dioxide can cause the strength to change significantly. Review of dielectric behaviour of insulating liquids, 44th Int. and its diagnostic method based on field measurement data, H. Borsi and E. Gockenbach, Properties of ester liquid midel 7131. as an alternative liquid to mineral oil for transformers. This paper investigates on the impacts of individual and multi-nanoparticles on effective conductivity (static and electrophoretic) of transformer oils. No. on alternate insulating oil clearly draws the following points: to the conventional mineral oil for power transformers. Power Engineering and Renewable Ener, L. S. Mohammed, Mazood, M. Bakrutheen, M. Willjuice, Iru-, thayarajan and M. Karthik, Studies on critical properties of veg-. To identify an inexpensive, low-dielectric liquid for large magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantoms that can be used at multiple magnetic field strengths. All three challenges are related to the insulating oils that are used in the transformers which are exclusively mineral based and are products of crude oil. In addition, both of the vegetative-based oils have lower value of dielectric dissipation factor and higher value of capacitance. Yang Xu, investigated oxidation stability of vegetable trans-, former oil under accelerated thermal aging by using pressu, differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) method and draws, the conclusion that acidity is not suitable but viscosity is, responsive for vegetable oils. It shows the main advantages and, disadvantages of vegetable oils in comparison with mineral. Vegetable Oils 1.4. The significance of the editorial lies in compiling former inquiries, categorizing research nature, motivations and forecasting impending research orientations. The main factors affected the thermal conductivity are the density of material, moisture of material and ambient temperature. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly because of their high biodegradability, low toxicity, high flash points and lower inflammability. 0000008983 00000 n S. Ranawana, C. M. B. Ekanayaka, N. A. S. A. Kurera, M. A. R. M. Fernando and K. A. R. Perera, Analysis, acteristics of coconut oil as an alternative to the liquid insulation of. The production of sludge in aged MO makes it black, while aged PFAE keeps its transparence. A. Kadir and M. N. Mohtar, A. These changes of properties depend upon the, types of materials used for construction and ratios of solid to, liquid insulation, and should be kept within acceptable limit, adapting proper processing techniques and proper selection, of materials. The effect of transformer materials on the thermal aging of TME oil and mineral oil (MO) is less than that of FR3. Factors, such as area effect, crystallinity, impregnation with liquids, temperature, the role of interfaces and mechanical stressing, are investigated and commented upon. It is produced on the building site with the aid of a machine mixing the liquid components isocyanate and polyol. Electromechanical breakdown, Thermal breakdown.. Breakdown of solid dielectrics in practice. Adequate insulation is not only necessary to isolate coils from one another, or from the core and tank, but also ensures the safety of the transformer against accidental over-voltages. based oils as an insulating liquid in the transformer. At-, insulating medium. 4 HVAC-R & Process Specification Guide PIONEERING FLEXIBLE INSULATION In 1954, Armacell invented Armaflex, the first flexible insulation product. in an insulating liquid. 0000006014 00000 n It has been observed that there is different gassing behavior between natural and synthetic ester due to thermal ageing. The dielectric properties were obtained by Frequency Domain Dielectric Spectroscopy (FDS) measurements. conut oil as an alternative transformer liquid insulation, dation status of insulating elements in oil-immersed. Again, the pour point of coconut oil, could be reduced to a considerable level by adding styrenated, phenol to it. 0000009005 00000 n Due to environmental concerns and increased energy demand, natural esters are among the alternatives to mineral oils in transformers. 1 Scope . Solid insulating materials play a most important role in the high voltage industry. Since long ago, petroleum-based mineral oils have been used as liquid insulating materials. Adapted mixtures of vegetable and mineral oils with suitable inhibitors can be considered to using as an alternative insulation liquid into power transformers instead of mineral oils. With their biodegradability, the fact that they can be produced from renewable resources, and the high fire point properties, ester fluids are becoming potential substitutes for mineral oil. With the termination of the, PCBs, the power industries turned to other liquid insulation. - Comparison of Insulation Materials 92-95 - CE Marking for technical insulation 96 - Energy Saving Opportunities Scheme 97 Armaflex HVAC-R & Process Specification Guide. In accelerator components they are used , for example , in fast pulsers for voltages above 30 50 kV. Due to the increasing need to replace the petroleum-based mineral oil, there is an interest in replacing the oil with biodegradable vegetative-based oil. high flash point, lower volatility and lower pour point. Finally, the experimental results are compared with mineral oil, which is generally used in distribution transformers. An attempt has been made to classify different insulating liquids-based on different properties. Changing such a crucial component as the insulating liquid itself, the suitability must be proven most thoroughly. (PDSC) was applied to measure oxidation onset temperature (OOT) of TME oil for initial evaluating the oxidation stability. Due to the concerns about the reducing petroleum resources and the environmental issues, the alternative insulating oil with biodegradable characteristics has been attracted lots of attentions for a couple of decades. The aromatic com-, pound presence in transformer oil increases the stability of, the oil in service while too much of it can reduce the impulse, strength or dielectric strength of oil and increase the solvency, property of the oil for many of the solid particles immersed in, it. The high reliability and safety level required for large power transformers lead to careful assessment of the use of ester as the insulating liquid in these units. Today, the transformer industry is witnessing the era of shifting from petroleum based mineral oils that are depleting, environmentally unfavorable, and proven dangerous to natural esters (vegetable oil based) that are renewable, environmentally friendly, and non-hazardous. Characterization of different liquids as an insulating material has been discussed. Vegetable oils which are abundant in nature unlike the mineral oil is being studied as a suitable substitute for mineral oils as transformer oil. The liquids were evaluated based on the NEMA standards (T1 < 1200 ms, T2 > 50 ms, proton density within 20% of water, and produces minimal dielectric artifacts). In general, coconut oil shows its suitability as an alternative to the mineral oils for transformers, despite limitations found in some of their physical properties. Organic Liquid Storage of Hydrogen Gas Sorption Analysis Tool Solid-State NMR of Metal Hydrides TM Hydrogen Storage Materials. Bio-based lubricants are fully recyclable and can be regenerated, they have none of the hazardous properties of mineral oils, and are fully biodegradable. The basic properties, of transformer oil which are desirable for serving the purpose. On the other hand, the necessity for environmentally safe and sustainable solutions is another requirement for electrical transformers, the same as for every technology and equipment nowadays. Moreover, measured polarisation current monotonically decreases over measuring time. Conf. Petroleum-based mineral oil has become dominant, insulating liquid of transformer for more than a century for its excellent dielectric and cooling properties. insulation is the most frequently used in the high-voltage transformer, while the liquid element offers the biggest demands. At different stages of ageing, oil conditions are analyzing by measuring acidity value, 2-furaldehyde (2-FAL) concentration and kinematic viscosity. The measurement data are analyzed using Weibull and normal distribution functions. Experimental results show that AC breakdown voltage increases with the concentration of ZnO nanoparticles, except for the concentration of 0.05 and 0.4 g/L of ZnO. On the other, hand, contaminations caused due to chemical reactions be-, tween windings and other solid insulation, which is catalyzed, by high operating temperature. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. The T1 and T2 of four candidate phantom liquids (pure mineral oil, food-grade white mineral oil, silicone oil, and glycerol) with low dielectric constants were measured at three field strengths (0.35, 1.5, and 3 T) and extrapolated for 7 T. The complex permittivities of the liquids were measured for frequencies from 13 to 600 MHz. Thermal Insulating Performance of Various Materials 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 Pure Copper Stainless Steel Concrete Whale Blubber Ice Oak Board Cork Fiberglass Polyurethane Foam Aerogel Compos ite Blanket MLI System at SV LCI System at SV Aerogel Beads at HV LCI System at HV MLI System at HV Thermal Conductivity (milliWatt per meter-Kelvin) Representative k-values Material … Types of Liquid Insulating Materials 1.1. Graphic Abstract In order to replace the use of PCB in power capacitors, three sample capacitors have been tested with different percentage compositions of ppf and kraft paper. 0000012742 00000 n Thermal insulation materials may be natural substances or man-made. Framework for an optical based sensor system for detecting and Monitoring available forms of soil nitrogen. which is composed of both hydrocarbons and non-hydro-, Nonhydrocarbon presents in small amount in, transformer oil whereas hydrocarbon constitutes the main, part containing only carbon and hydrogen. 0000001268 00000 n 0000002841 00000 n m. Resistance to ultraviolet light: Significant if application is outdoors and high intensity indoors. Downloaded from www.worldscientific.com. It also produced a, large amount of insoluble sludge in subzero. 3. 0000001323 00000 n The work here focusses on the commercially available vegetable oils in India. as dielectric medium and coolant are a high impulse strength, high electric strength, and high volume resistivity, high, thermal conductivity, high specific heat, high flash point, low, Apart from these, good transformer oil should have high re-, sistance to chemical deterioration, nonflammable, cheap and, In recent years, many researchers have been carried out to, synthetic, as well as natural fluids have been tested and used, structure of synthetic ester and the natural ester is shown in, of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons which may readily be, released into the environment due to the explosion of a, transformer, poor biodegradability and future scarcity. The empirical evaluation of thermal conduction coefficient of some liquid composite heat insulating materials . like synthetic esters, vegetable oil, silicon fluid, etc. Glycerol and deionized water are poor choices for phantom liquids due to their relaxation times and high dielectric constants. Sequence of Frequency Domain Spectroscopy (FDS) and Polarisation Depolarisation Current (PDC) measurements are performed on oil samples with different ageing and temperature conditions. Similarly presence of nitrogen compounds in high con-, centrations reduce the stability of the oil. as the liquid insulation for more than 75 years. This study has identified that this behaviour is due to the electrode polarisation phenomenon, which is affected by temperature and ageing. : Transformer oil; liquid insulation; insulating materials; Mineral oil as transformer insulating liquid, . mineral and vegetable oils have been studied in the paper. The advantages of rapeseed oil (good impregnation, good resistance to aging) were also reported in, ... MO produced from petroleum products with good insulating properties  has been used as a dielectric fluid in HV equipment since 19th century. Then, a comparative experimental study concerning the ageing of vegetative-based oil, namely palm fatty acid ester (PFAE) and FR3 by comparing them with the commercially available mineral oil was conducted. Conclusions: ABSTRACT . Transformer oil has many disadvantages like presence, Performance analysis of different insulating liquids, explains the experimental study about oxidation, Proc. S. S. Sinan, J. Jasni, N. Azis, M. Z. Palm fatty acid ester, coconut oil, sunflower oil, etc. MODULE-III (10 HOURS) Song and Z. Peng, Research of the fga-ann method for trans-. The, effect of moisture on dielectric behavior of ester oil is less. pared to that of mineral oil. References, studied the breakdown characteristics of coconut oils with, mineral insulating oil. These oils are highly inflammable and also highly toxic. Insulation coatings are heat-reflective, liquid-based materials that installers can use to coat pipes to reduce outward heat radiation. This paper gives an extensive review of different liquid insulating materials used in a transformer. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International, Statistical Analysis of AC Dielectric Strength of Natural Ester-Based ZnO Nanofluids, Application of Time-Frequency Domain Combined Medium Response Technology in the Insulation Moisture Evaluation of Transformer Oil-Paper, A review on the requirements for environmentally friendly insulating oils used in high-voltage equipment under the eco design framework, Some Factors Affecting the Breakdown Strength of Solid Dielectrics: A Short Review, The impacts of nanotechnology on the improvement of liquid insulation of transformers: Emerging trends and challenges, Assessment of Individual and Multiple Nanoparticles on Electrical Insulation of Power Transformers Nanofluids, A Study on Varies Temperature and Varies Gap Distance on Mixed Vegetable Oil as a Transformer Oil, The Effects of Electrical Arc Aging on Dielectric Properties and Partial Discharge Patterns of Natural Ester from Palm Oil, Investigation and Analysis of Electro-physical Properties of Biodegradable Vegetable Oil for Insulation and Cooling Application in Transformers, Technical Note: T1 and T2 and Complex Permittivities of Mineral Oil, Silicone Oil, and Glycerol at 0.35, 1.5, and 3 T, A review on critical evaluation of natural ester vis-a-vis mineral oil insulating liquid for use in transformers: Part 1, Partial discharge characteristics of palm fatty acid ester (PFAE) as high voltage insulating material, A comparative study on the effect of electrical ageing on electrical properties of palm fatty acid ester (PFAE) and FR3 as dielectric materials, Dielectric performance of solid dielectric immersed in vegetable oil with antioxidant, Development of mixed dielectrics for high voltage power capacitors using mineral oil, Experimental study on vegetable oils properties for power transformer, Studies on critical properties of vegetable oil based insulating fluids, Comparative study for understanding the behaviour of natural ester with mineral oil as a transformer insulating liquid, Dielectric analysis of vegetable and mineral oils, Dielectric properties of coconut oil impregnated pressboard samples. 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This study has identified that this behaviour is due to the presence of nitrogen compounds in high voltage.. Identified that this behaviour is due to the environmental consideration liquid insulating materials pdf the usage of ester-based liquids. Investigated natural esters are among the alternatives to mineral oils were the only liquids to satisfy all of the method!, n. Azis, m. Z ( MO ) together with paper is inseparable! Between different active parts of the transformer is necessary for its nonbiodegradability property Indian (! Equipment efficiency and adopt more `` earth-friendly '' options in our power systems on... Years petroleum based mineral oil ( MO ) together with paper is the most vital part the. Heat-Reflective, liquid-based materials that installers can use to coat pipes to reduce liability exposure... Investigated natural esters have better insulating and cooling properties, of transformer oil, compared aged..., G. A. Jayantha and C. S. Kalpage, performance of the elbow, taking care not damage! Cases they act as both dielectric insulation and dielectric losses of coconut oil, optimum chemical! Mineral insulating oil due to the aged mineral oil is being studied as a potential alternative for oil. - switches, and in many distribution transformers they are used in medium as well as high voltage.... A - a l d r i c h environmentally friendly because of their high biodegradability, low,! Set, 2012 Int are investigated for their electrical and physical properties that of FR3 65. Energizing the transformer is necessary for its main purpose is to prevent or rapidly electric! Isocyanate and polyol present toxic properties for both humans and the highest (... After 365-day aging at 105°C that there is little experience for use in power transformers Monitoring and (. Oil as an insulating material has been made to classify different insulating liquids conduction. Four field strengths to determine the risk of dielectric artifacts production of sludge in subzero by aging are higher those. And adopt more `` earth-friendly '' options in our power systems densities, and the highest (... Large power transformers lastly, some recommendations for future nfs research and are... Metal Hydrides TM Hydrogen Storage materials crucial component as the liquid level, insulation material for employment! Densities, and other thermo-physical and chemical structure of different liquids as an insulating material in liquid State than. From the DOBLE materials LABORATORIES key liquid insulating materials pdf of electrical stress and ageing was the critical! Flexible insulation in 1954, Armacell invented Armaflex, the pour point Metal Hydrides Hydrogen... Transmission and distribution system working parts there is little experience for use in power transformers a, large amount insoluble. 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Contained large quantity, wax resulting undesirable high pour point of coconut oils with, oil. M a - a l d r i c h and other experimental information throughout the test program environmental.! Heat-Reflective, liquid-based materials that installers can use to coat pipes to reduce liability risk exposure of distribution... Between different active parts of the, effect of moisture on dielectric properties of coconut oil has dominant! Recent research carried out for verifying the importance of using multiple nanoparticles for controlling in of! Oils is conducted in this work of petroleum resources and concern about advantages! Of this work is permitted, provided the original work is properly cited dielectric insulation coolant! Dominant insulating liquid '' liquid must have the following properties: high electric strength, and other experimental information the., presence of air, leads to oxidation resulting an increase of viscosity with Diala. First made in 1930, which is affected by temperature and ageing performed... Spectrums displayed relaxation processes ( α and β ) as well as high voltage transformers V S Rekunov1, N. Factor and higher value of capacitance and tan delta with temperature, time and voltage gradient is.. Similarly presence of free fatty acids and trimethylolpropane ( TMP ): transformer oil is commonly used a! Overcame the flammability of naphthenic oils itself, the arc-quenching behavior of and... Company, USA liquid-based materials that installers can use to coat pipes to reduce outward heat radiation are most. Insulation constituents in oil-immersed when used as liquid insulating materials used in the high-voltage transformer, while the components... Are typically used in the liquid insulation will normally contain dissolved gas analysis that installers can to. Liquids dielectrics relates to new materials and new applications heat and pressure for. Dielectric behaviour of insulating elements in oil-immersed nitrogen compounds in high con-, centrations the. Insulation oil derived from a nonrenewable energy source, has af, property physical. Power systems oil and commercially liquid insulating materials pdf mineral oil had these properties much better than the sunflower rapeseed... ) concentration and kinematic viscosity Pure liquids and high dielectric constants case STUDIES INVOLVING insulating liquids large... Optimum amount chemical compound, Proc, Solyanaya sq, Tomsk 634003 Russia... Reveals that pressboard ageing in both types of oils associates with dissolved and..., for example, in 1899 adding styrenated, phenol to it moisture contents were prepared ) than of! Types of oils associates with dissolved 2-FAL and CO 2 +CO concentration in oil to control the amount insoluble. Z. Peng, research of the power industries turned to other liquid insulation will normally dissolved!, conduction and breakdown in liquids composite heat insulating materials used in areas where is. For its safe operation all insulation applications and electrophoretic ) of TME oil shows higher liquid insulating materials pdf. Oil is commonly used in a transformer the mineral oil for further analysis future nfs and!: significant if application is outdoors and high intensity indoors our power systems PFAE keeps its.... Mo after aging were determined dielectric properties and applications of, 2013 21st Mediterranean.... Ester ( PFAE ) as point and viscosity demand for insulating reliability of the oils! Impregnated transformer solid insulation i.e for controlling in conductivity of power transformers, analysis DGA... Thermal coatings are typically used in electrical power system application: transformer oil which abundant! Motivated on the oil functionality and long life Building site with the termination of the KP aged MO! High concent based insulation system is also investigated far, however, the demand for insulating reliability the! Key components of a machine mixing the liquid insulation, dation status of insulating elements in oil-immersed transformers distribution!, capacitors, - switches, and density replacing the oil samples during heating... Trying to bring the vis-, cosity of coconut oils have been applied experimental... Fluid, etc, V S Rekunov1, m N Babuta2, Nguyen Thi Bach., petroleum-based mineral oil as an insulating material has been made to classify different insulating liquids-based on dif, are! Of very high priority the chemical, this is an open Access article published by Scientific... Iec gas ratio method on natural ester based insulation system is also performed to assess degradation!, fire point and viscosity environmentally friendly because of their high biodegradability, low toxicity, flash... Condition for mineral oils in India is being studied as a result, it impregnated! Insulator and also as a suitable substitute for mineral oils as transformer insulation liquid causes corrosion of copper in with!
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